What is acne?

Acne is a disease which affects the skins oil glands. This resulting in the pores in your skin (small holes) connect to the oil glands under the skin, these glands then create a substance which is called sebum which is an oily substance. The pores then connect to the glands by a canal called a follicle; inside the follicles, the oil carries dead skin cells to the skin surface. Thin hair then grows through the follicle and out to the skin; when the follicle of the skin gland clogs up a pimple starts to develop/grows. Most pimples are discovered on your face, back, neck, chest and shoulders.


How does acne form and develop? 

Acne usually develops when the hair, sebum and skin cells clump together into a plug. The bacteria inside the plug then lead to swelling and when the plug starts to break down a pimple grows. There is a high amount of different pimples the most common types are:

  • Whiteheads- Pimples that remain under the surface of the skin.
  • Blackheads- Pimples that rise to the surface of the skin and their appearance is black.
  • Papules- Small pink bumps that can be tender.
  • Pustules- Pimples that are red on the bottom and have pus on the top.
  • Nodules- These are large, painful, solid pimples that are deep in the skin.
  • Cysts- Deep, painful, pus-filled pimples can result to scars.


What are the causes of acne?

This is a very common condition and there is no specific cause.

However, there are ways which Acne can be triggered such as

  • Hormone increase in teenage years (causes the oil glands to plug up more often)
  • Hormone changes during pregnancy
  • Starting or stopping birth control pills
  • Inheritance (if your parents had acne it is likely that you can get it as well)
  • Some types of medicine
  • Greasy makeup


 How can acne be managed?

  • Clean skin gently. Use a mild cleanser in the morning, evening and after heavy workouts. Scrubbing the skin does not help it can result to making Acne worse.
  • Try not to touch your skin because if you squeeze, pinch or pick your pimples it can result to scars or dark spots on the skin.
  • Shave carefully by trying both electronic and safety razors to see which one works best. With safety razors, use a sharp blade. It also helps if you soften your beard with soap and water before putting on shaving cream. Shave lightly and only when necessary.
  • Stay out of the sun as many acne medications can make people vulnerable to the sun. This can cause the skin to wrinkle, raising the risk of skin cancer.
  • Chose makeup carefully. This means all makeup used should be oil free so that the makeup will not clog up your pores.
  • Shampoo your hair regularly; if your hair is oily it is best to shampoo daily.

 

Acne Diagram

 

 


What is Doxycycline?

Doxycycline 100MG Capsules belongs to a group of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections which include

  • Chest, lung or nasal infections
  • Infections of the kidneys or bladder
  • Eye infections
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Fevers associated with louse or tick bites
  • Malaria when chloroquine is not effective

Doxycycline capsules are also used to prevent certain infections from spreading such as scrub typhus, travellers’ diarrhoea, malaria and leptospirosis ( a bacterial infection caused by exposure to bacteria in fresh contaminated water by animal urine).


How to take Doxycycline

  • You must take your capsules as instructed by your doctor.
  • It is important to swallow each capsule whole with a glass of water.
  • It is best advised to take your capsules at the same time each day, when standing or while sitting.
  • Do not lie down for at least 30 minutes after taking the capsules, enabling the capsule to move as swiftly as possible into the stomach and prevent irritation of the throat or oesophagus (canal taking food from the mouth into the stomach).
  • If your stomach is upset the capsules can be taken with milk or with a meal.
  • Take 50MG daily for 6-12 weeks, with food or fluid.


What are the side effects of Doxycycline?

Common

  • Oesophagitis (inflammation in the tube leading from the mouth to the stomach)
  • Burning sensation in the stomach
  • Feeling or being sick
  • Diarrhoea
  • Lack of appetite
  • Sensitivity to sunlight  

Rare

  • Severe skin rash or tightening of the skin
  • Feelings of extreme weakness or tiredness
  • A ringing or buzzing noise in the ear
  • Visual disturbances accompanied by a headache
  • Severe diarrhoea
  • Low blood pressure
  • Aches in the joints or muscles
  • Soreness and itching of the rectal and/or genital area
  • Breathing difficulties, swelling of the lips, face or tongue
  • Blood disorders

Most of these side effects are not normally serious but if they do become serious then you must contact your doctor immediately.

If you have any more queries about side effects then you must contact your doctor immediately to discuss further.


What is Lymecycline? 

Lymecycline capsules belong to a group of medicines called tetracycline antibiotics. This is used to treat acne which appears as either blackheads or whiteheads which people often refer to as pimples or spots. The medicine can also be used to treat other infections such as acute sinusitis, bronchitis, infections in the abdomen, trachoma (a type of eye infection) and soft tissue infections. The appearance of Lymecycline capsules is hard gelatine capsules, with a blue cap and a white body.


Before taking Lymecycline

Do not take the capsules if you ever have had kidney disease, are a child under the age of 12, if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in the capsule.  

You must tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have experienced any of the following conditions before taking Lymecycline;

  • Liver problems
  • Kidney problems
  • Suffer from systemic lupus erythematosus (an allergic condition which causes joint pain, skin rashes or fever)
  • Suffer from myasthenia gravis (a disease that weakens the muscles)


How to take Lymecycline for adults and children over the age of 12

  • The normal dose is one Lymecycline capsule once a day, most suitable to take in the morning. Always take as your doctor has instructed.
  • Always take the capsules with a glass of water.
  • How long you will have to take Lymecycline will depend on how quickly your condition improves. For acne, the estimated time is usually around 8 weeks.


What are the side effects of Lymecycline?

The common side effects for Lymecycline are;

  • Nausea
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Headaches

The following side effects may occur during the treatment with the tetracycline’s which is the medicine group that belongs to the Lymecycline capsules.

  • Inflammation or ulceration to the gullet, causing pain or difficulty swallowing or painful heartburn.
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Inflammation of the pancreas
  • Liver damage
  • Teeth discolouration
  • Inflammation of soreness of the tongue, mouth, cheeks, gums or lips
  • Soreness or itching of the general area
  • Yeast infection around the anus or genital
  • Infection of the colon
  • Permanent visual loss

If you get any of these side effects it is best to speak to your doctor or pharmacist or if you are concerned about any other side effects not listed.


What is Oxytetracycline?

Oxytetracycline belongs to a medicine group called tetracycline antibiotics. This is also known as a broad spectrum antibiotic which can be used to treat a wide range of infections caused by bacteria. This includes the following

  • Lung infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis, whooping cough
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis.
  • Skin infections such as Acne
  • Infections of the eye such as conjunctivitis
  • Rickettsial infections such as Q fever or tick fever which involves a severe headache, rash, high fever)
  • Other infections such as brucellosis which involves a headache, sickness, fever, swollen lymph nodes,
  • psittacosis which involves headaches, nose bleeds, shivering, fever
  • plague which involves painful swelling of the lymph nodes
  • cholera which involves severe sickness and diarrhoea
  • leptospirosis which is a fever causing jaundice or meningitis
  • gas-gangrene and tetanus (lock jaw)

The appearance of the Oxytetracycline tablets is yellow, circular, biconvex, film coated tablets. Each tablet contains 250mg of the active ingredient and the pack size is 28 tablets.


Before taking Oxytetracycline

Oxytetracycline must not be taken if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breastfeeding due to the fact that it could cause harm to the baby so you must seek advice from a doctor or pharmacist before considering taking Oxytetracycline. Do not take the tablets during the same time as milk or food, as this can make the medicine less effective.


How to take Oxytetracycline Tablets

  • Always take Oxytetracycline tablets as your doctor has told you or if unsure check with your pharmacist.
  • Swallow the tablets one hour before meals or two hours after meals, with a glass of water.
  • Swallow the tablets when standing or sitting down and do not take them immediately before going to bed. Avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight due to skin reactions may occur.
  • The usual doses are for at least 10 days
  • Adults, Elderly and children aged 12 years and over may be given one tablet (250mg) every 6 hours, or if severe then your doctor will increase your dosage to 500mg (2 tablets every 6 hours).  This is for General Infections.
  • For Specific Infections, it varies
  • Skin infections: 1-2 tablets (250-500mg daily) either as a single dose or divided doses over three months.
  • Brucellosis: 2 tablets (500mg) four times a day with streptomycin.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases: 2 tablets (500mg) four times a day between 7 and 30 days depending on condition.
  • If you are under the age of 12 you must not take Oxytetracycline as it can cause permanent discoloration of tooth enamel and affect bone development.


>What are the side effects of Oxytetracycline?

Tell your doctor if you experience any of the following;

  • Feeling or being sick
  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomach upsets
  • Loss of appetite
  • Discolouration of tooth enamel
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Swelling or ulceration of the gullet
  • Pseudomembranous colitis (watery diarrhoea, fever and cramps).
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis causing pain in the abdomen or back, feeling sick and fever)
  • Changes in blood cells (increased bruising, nose bleeds, sore throats, infections, nonstop tiredness, breathlessness, pale skin
  • Redness or colour change of the skin
  • Changes in liver/kidney functions

 You must stop taking the tablets immediately and seek urgent medical advice if the following side effects occur;

  • Symptoms of an allergic reaction: skin rashes which may be itchy, swelling of the face and the tongue,
  • Symptoms of inflammation of the membrane around the heart (fever and chest pain)
  • Breathing difficulties and collapse (anaphylaxis)
  • Symptoms of raised pressure in the skill such as headaches, blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to sunlight or artificial light such as sunbed these symptoms include tingling, burning or redness of the skin.